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Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur for a variety of reasons, from sports-related injuries (e.g., concussions) to car accidents. The impact that the TBI can have on cognitive, emotional and behavioral functioning depends on the location and extent of the damage. Location helps determine what functions are going to be impacted. For example, damage to the

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According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), autism spectrum disorders are characterized by the presence of severe impairment in a number of areas of development including reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills and the presence of stereotyped behaviors and interest. This category includes Autistic Disorder, a broader category of

Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons, the cells that control essential voluntary muscle activities such as speaking, walking, breathing and swallowing. Normally, messages from nerve cells in the brain, called upper motor neurons, are transmitted to nerve cells in the brainstem and spinal cord called lower

Academic problems are some of the most frequent reasons for obtaining a neuropsychological evaluation. Problems in school are due to a variety of factors including poor attention, behavior problems, medical or neurological illness or disorder, and bona fide Learning Disorders. The purpose of the neuropsychological evaluation is to determine the cause of the academic problems

Sex Chromosome Abnormalities (SCA) can manifest in a variety of ways. The goal of this section is to provide information on some of the more common types of SCA and the associated syndromes that arise. Those syndromes that will be covered include Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), Turner’s Syndrome and XYY Syndrome. Klinefelter Syndrome KS is the

Seizures are sudden periodic attacks or spasms (also referred to as paroxysmal events) that are produced by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. They can result in sudden brief attacks that may alter consciousness, motor activity or sensory experience. Any recurrent pattern of seizures is considered epilepsy. Epilepsy can be due to a large variety

NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE DISORDERS The endocrine system (ES) is composed of a diverse array of components whose functions are equally as diverse, both in terms of function and dysfunction. The relationship between the ES and central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of multiple feedback loops (Hadley & Levine, 2006; Blumenfeld, 2002) so that disorders of

BRAIN TUMORS Brain tumors affect approximately 190,000 people in the United States every year. They are the leading cause of childhood cancer deaths and the second leading death in individuals ages 20-39. Metastatic brain tumors occur in 10-15% of people with cancer and are the most common type of brain tumor. Primary brain tumors occur

Attention problems are one of the most frequent sources of complaint for which a neuropsychological evaluation may be requested. Often, parents complain that their children are unable to remain focused in the classroom, have difficulty following directions and are forgetful. Adults may present with complaints such as difficulty organizing or completing work-related tasks, distractibility and

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